Characteristics of a Healthy Work Environment

Kramer and Schmalenberg (2002; 2004a, 2004b) identified eight attributes, which came to be known as essential for a healthy nursing practice environment in hospitals and which are necessary for the provision of quality care.

These are:

  • Support for education
  • Working with clinically competent nurses
  • Collegial and collaborative interdisciplinary relationships
  • Autonomous nursing practice
  • Control over nursing practice
  • Supportive nurse managers
  • Perceived adequacy of staffing
  • Culture in which concern for the patient is paramount


  • Overview
  • Description of each attribute

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